A human being has a few basic requirements to survive on this planet. Those most basic requirements include clean air to breathe in, water and food. With the evolution of the man, their needs for survival have also modified for shelter, food, and clothes to wear. Out of all of them, the most important without which anybody can’t even imagine staying alive is food and nutrition. Eating healthy is a sign of having a better life. Nutrition is part and parcel of our life. A balanced diet includes some basic nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins for the proper functioning of body processes, and maintaining the health and keeping us active for performing daily life activities like playing, walking, running, reading, etc. Eating is important for life but overeating and under eating both can bring with eating many lethal and dangerous problems.
INTRODUCTION TO OBESITY
Obesity is the medical condition in which the person becomes extremely heavy, fat, and stout. The person having such an increased body mass may become more prone to many more other lethal diseases so as the name “MOTHER OF ALL DISEASES”.
Doctors use criteria for measuring the appropriate weight according to age, sex, and a medical status called a body mass index(BMI). An obese person can have their BMI increased up to 30 while normal is 18.5-24.9.
CAUSES OF OBESITY
The most common and understandable cause for obesity is overeating and minimal physical activity . Having slack and stagnant lifestyles often changes many normal people into obese. Other causes may be ;
Obesity often runs in families as it has the genetic component. 40 % of obesity is due to genetic causes.
60% of obesity is due to environmental causes.
Less physical activity often makes a person obese (obesity). Today’s world provides more latest appliances that lessen manual work.
Insulin for diabetes, antidepressants, antipsychotics, steroid hormones, opioids, and antihypertensives often have side effects of weight gain (obesity).
The stress hormone cortisol is released in stress that increases the cravings for more food leading to more calorie intake ultimately weight gain (obesity).
Junk food usually has an excessive and abnormal amount of fat and sugars in it which gets accumulated in our body leading to weight gain (obesity).
Leptin is an obesity-related hormone released from fat cells and it sends signals to the hypothalamus in the brain to regulate the eating patterns and alter food intake. It is directly related to body weight more is leptin is secreted if a man puts on weight. In leptin resistance, a person is unable to feel satiety and the control is lost.
Culture includes your family, marital status, economic status, society you live in, age, gender, occupation, and education level which have different effects on eating habits and the type of food eaten.
The food having a high content of cholesterol and fats can prove poison for obese or overweight people. Cholesterol level-up to 100-129 mg/dL is acceptable but above this can be alarming especially in patients with cardiac diseases.
COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY
Excess body weight firstly makes the person inactive and lethargic, the person rarely can do any physical work. Moreover, many other health risks are associated with it which may include;
- Respiratory disorders, like sleep apnoea, asthma. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD
- Joint diseases as arthritis, osteoarthritis,
- Cardiac diseases (acute coronary heart disease)
- Cancers of the breast, colon, gall bladder, endometrium, kidney)
- Liver problems and gallstones
- High level of LDL (low-density lipids) and VLDL (very low-density lipids) cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipids (HDL)
- Sexual abnormalities I.e infertility, abnormal menstruation.
- Dysregulated immune system (increases susceptibility to different infectious agents)
- Gastrointestinal abnormalities e.g gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Psychological Problems Related To Obesity
Besides medical conditions, a person becomes depressed, discriminated, emotionally disturbed because of his body shape. They face lowered self-esteem, society abandons them, usually find difficulty in finding jobs, and the quality of life is also compromised.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF OBESITY
Weight managing programs should be joined to prevent obesity, a person should take part in daily life works, physical activities should be increased, the diet should be controlled and altered to eating less and healthy. Exercise is the easiest and rapid way to lose weight. A person should attempt surgical intervention only when all try to lose weight, fail. As a preventive measure, we should make habit of eating a healthy balanced diet, less calorie intake and being active so as to avoid obesity and its related health risks.